AI’s Sentence Embeddings, Demystified | by Ajay Halthor | Aug, 2023

Bridging the hole between computer systems and language: How AI Sentence Embeddings Revolutionize NLP

Photograph by Steve Johnson on Unsplash

On this weblog submit, let’s demystify how computer systems perceive sentences and paperwork. To kick this dialogue off, we are going to rewind time starting with the earliest strategies of representing sentences utilizing n-gram vectors and TF-IDF vectors. Later sections will focus on strategies that combination phrase vectors from neural bag of phrases to the sentence transformers and language fashions we see at the moment. There may be numerous enjoyable expertise to cowl. Let’s start our journey with the easy, elegant n-grams.

Computer systems don’t perceive phrases, however they do perceive numbers. As such, we have to convert phrases and sentences into vectors when processing by a pc. One of many earliest representations of sentences as a vector might be traced again to a 1948 paper by Claude Shanon, father of data idea. On this seminal work, sentences have been represented as an n-gram vector of phrases. What does this imply?

Determine 1: Producing n-gram vector from a sentence. (picture by creator)

Take into account the sentence “It is a good day”. We will break this sentence down into the next n-grams:

  • Unigrams: This, is, a, good, day
  • Bigrams: That is, is a, a very good, good day
  • Trigrams: it is a, is an efficient, a very good day
  • and far more …

On the whole, a sentence might be damaged down into its constituent n-grams, iterating from 1 to n. When establishing the vector, every quantity on this vector represents whether or not the n-gram was current within the sentence or not. Some strategies as a substitute may us the depend of the n-gram current within the sentence. A pattern vector illustration of a sentence is proven above in Determine 1.

One other early, but in style methodology of representing sentences and paperwork concerned figuring out TF-IDF vector of a sentence or the “Time period Frequency — Inverse Doc Frequency” vector. On this case, we’d depend the variety of instances a phrase seems within the sentence to…

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